Deadly to Horses: The Baffert Effect – Part 2


Continued from Part 1


Since the sudden deaths of the seven horses there has been much speculation with regard to the root cause of these deaths, more so now that the results, in effect, have been reported to be inconclusive thereby absolving Baffert of any wrong-doing.

Bo Derek, CHRB Commissioner and personal friend of trainer Bob Baffert. Many believe she and her Board looked past suspicious activities relating to the "sudden deaths" of seven Thoroughbreds he was training at Santa Anita? Getty image.
Bo Derek, CHRB Commissioner and personal friend of trainer Bob Baffert. Many believe she and her Board looked past suspicious activities relating to the “sudden deaths” of seven Thoroughbreds he was training at Santa Anita? Getty image.

It is a well known fact that Baffert has personal relationships with several individuals on the CHRB — such as Commissioner Bo Derek and departing Chairman David Israel — which has many believing the entire investigation has been compromised by lack of objectivity and a failure to report the truth.

At the very least there is conjecture that some critical details have been omitted to protect Baffert’s character and status in the racing circuit. After all, Baffert is crucial in preserving the vitality of North American racing — at least according to Dwyre (Part 1).

In any case, there are many questions that will now and forever go unanswered. That said there are a number of different theories, which apart from the rat poison, are linked directly with the redundant and fanatical prostitution of the so-called legal therapeutics.


Rat profile. Google image.
Google image.

Diphacinone is a multiple feeding toxicant that kills rodents through anticoagulant activity.

Diphacinone works by inhibition of liver-synthesized coagulation proteins leading to internal hemorrhaging and if ingested in sufficient amounts death. This drug was once used in humans as an anticoagulant to treat and prevent blood clots and if taken in the recommended dosages no permanent or life threatening effects occur.

“The effects due to chronic exposure are similar to those expected from an acute exposure, but animal studies and human use experience suggest that there is a level of chronic exposure at which no adverse effects may occur.”

See at

Therefore, as long as the dosage is controlled, it can be taken without any outward signs of damage.

But why would anyone administer an anticoagulant to a horse, particularly since it is a highly toxic compound in EPA Toxicity Class I?

Enter EPO or Erythropoietin.

Although there is typically no medical reason to use EPO in the horse it has been widely used as a performance-enhancing drug despite being an illicit drug in horse racing. EPO increases the number of red cells circulating in the blood.

Red blood cells shuttle oxygen through the blood and increase the amount of oxygen carried to the muscles which in turn increases aerobic capacity and hence endurance.

However increasing the number of red blood cells causes the blood to become much more viscous particularly during strenuous exercise where body temperature increases and dehydration is more prevalent. As a result, the misuse of EPO carries a clear risk for cardiac failure.

Logically, yet sinister in nature from a doping perspective, the administration of an anticoagulant such as Diphacinone will counterbalance the effect of thicken blood. Human athletes routinely use Heparin in combination with EPO-doping. EPO doping in the racing world has been around for years.

EPO is produced naturally in the kidneys and liver and therefore its presence in test samples at the track is not necessarily suspect. Moreover because EPO breaks down rapidly it is often difficult to detect an elevated level in horses. See at (with the interesting headline “How Lance Armstrong’s drug of choice has turned horse racing into a sport for cheats — and what must be done to fix it”).

“Partly it’s because detecting EPO can be notoriously tricky. To be most effective, it is thought by some, EPO needs to be given well before a race–say, 8 to 10 days out, or even longer. But the detection period for EPO can be very short, as little as two days after its been administered. So a horse could be given EPO on a Monday, and by Wednesday or Thursday, it will test clean. That drives suspicion that EPO is still being used. But regulators simply aren’t finding it.”

See Thoroughbred Daily News at

Maybe? Who knows.

THYRO-L (levothyroxine)

“The 26-page report said that Baffert acknowledged directing his veterinarians to use thyroxine on all his horses. Baffert, however, was the one who asked his veterinarians to prescribe it, which is in conflict with the policy of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, the industry’s most influential veterinary group, which says treatments “should be based upon a specific diagnosis and administered in the context of a valid and transparent owner-trainer-veterinarian relationship.”

See The New York Times at

THYROXINE L. Google image.
THYROXINE L. Google image.

Thyro-L is a thyroid hormone (T4) used to treat hypothyroidism, a condition where the body fails to produce a sufficient amount of thyroxine; the human equivalent is Synthroid. The intended result of the medication is to restore “normal” metabolic activity.

Thyroxine should only be prescribed for horses with evidence of low circulating thyroid hormone and then only on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

Dosages should be individualized and horses should be monitored daily for clinical signs of hyperthyroidism or hypersensitivity and response to the medication should be evaluated clinically every week until an adequate maintenance dose is established. See at

Racehorse training at Santa Anita. Photo credit: Nikki Burr.
Racehorse training at Santa Anita. Photo credit: Nikki Burr.

Levothyroxine has adrenaline-like effects including increased heart rate, palpitations, hypertension, tachycardia, nervousness and increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias. See at

Risks of over-medication of horses with normal thyroid function (euthyroid) clearly include adverse cardiovascular indications and symptoms of hyperthyroidism which can be life threatening when combined with other medications — in particular Clenbuterol and Ketamine. When used in conjunction with Clenbuterol it is an extremely powerful fat burner while Ketamine may increase risk of cardiac failure. See;

Both of these drugs have been and are used on horses to enhance performance, the former legally so. Ketamine, a NMDA receptor antagonist that functions similarly to an opioid/anesthetic, was once allowed at certain thresholds limits in horse racing however it is now a banned substance with Class 2 status (i.e. high potential to affect performance). That is not to say no one uses it anymore — nothing is a given in horse racing, anything goes.

What’s even more interesting is that levothyroxine increases the effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine and warfarin. See at

Warfarin is in the same anticoagulant family as diphacinone the so-called first-generation anticoagulants which are characterized as chronic in their action and take several feedings over time to cause death. Recall that diphacinone was implicated in two of the deaths.

When the thyroid function is too high (hyperthyroidism), the anticoagulant effects will be magnified and a “normal” dose of it will therefore cause the blood to be too thin and may result in dangerous bleeding. See at

It doesn’t take much to put two and two together.

And one last fact about levothyroxine effects to take away with you.

“Levothyroxine can alter the results of many laboratory tests. Tell your veterinarian your horse is on levothyroxine before any tests are performed.”


The ultimate weapon in the war against getting caught.

Some facts that came out of the CHRB investigation clearly demonstrate the negligence on the part of Baffert with respect to the administration of levothyroxine. See

  • Baffert administered Thyro-L to “ALL” of his horses regardless of their thyroid function using it as a supplement rather than medication. Thyro-L was so routinely prescribed it was dispensed to one of the sudden death victims a week after he had died.
  • The thyroxine was requested by Baffert and not prescribed by a veterinarian.
  • It is unclear if the recommended dosage of 12 mg was followed. Barn staff, including grooms, were involved in its administration mixed with feed (i.e. was it metered out? etc.)
  • There were no tests conducted on any of the horses before or during the time they were receiving levothyroxine to determine whether the horses were hypothyroid or hyperthyroid therefore difficult to know whether any of the horses were put at risk of becoming hyperthyroid. To reiterate – hyperthyroidism is consistently associated with cardiac abnormalities.

What is also lacking in sensibility is Baffert’s alleged reason for administering thyroxine to his horses.

“Arthur added that Baffert said he used the hormone to ‘build up’ his horses, but the thyroid hormone is used for the opposite, to assist weight loss, Arthur said. He called Baffert’s comment “surprising’.”


Who does he think he is kidding? And what is wrong with the CHRB and medication rules in North American racing overall?

Cheat to Win bracelet in honor of Lance Armstrong. From The Onion Store.
Cheat to Win bracelet in honor of Lance Armstrong. From The Onion Store.

This is clearly doping. The fact that a drug is administered when there is no apparent underlying condition present is simply seeking to achieve a surrogate benefit; in this case enhanced performance (speed) due to weight loss.

Of course Baffert gave it to all of his horses. He was legally cheating to win.

There is something perilously wrong when a performance-enhancing drug is legal and considered therapeutic yet poses increased risk of cardiac failure. The abuse of legal medications in NA racing is abhorrent. It is pure and simple doping. To think otherwise is utter denial.

But the CHRB simply dismissed the evidence and used the excuse that because Baffert uses levothyroxine on all his horses this couldn’t possibly be the source of the sudden deaths — blatant favoritism and protectionism for their golden boy Baffert. The facts undeniably expose the flagrant negligence surrounding the use of this drug.


The ubiquitous Clenbuterol — a widely abused bronchodilator medication in the racing industry for respiratory problems regularly used to build muscle by mimicking anabolic steroids even when administered in therapeutic doses.

Clenbuterol increases lean weight, so there is more muscle while decreasing non-lean weight, so there is less fat. This is yet another legal performance enhancer, one that Baffert and others use religiously regardless of whether the horse suffers from respiratory distress or not. Unlike phenylbutazone and lasix there is a mandatory withdrawal time prior to a race. However, clenbuterol has a long half life and its effects will linger for some time.

Clenbuterol. Photo: Benjamin Norman / New York Times.
A bottle of the drug Clenbuterol, also know by the brand name Ventipulmin.

Also known as ventipulmin, chronic administration of clenbuterol has been shown to negatively alter cardiac function by “altering the internal diameter, thickening the septal wall and increasing aortic root dimensions.” See

Moreover chronic administration of clenbuterol diminishes its efficacy and worsens the breathing function of the horse.

While clenbuterol used as directed for an underlying air obstruction problem is a good therapeutic drug its use as a performance-enhancing medication is precarious. Particularly in light of the non-FDA approved compounded clenbuterol which resulted in horse deaths including six in Louisiana in November 2006. Unregulated clenbuterol products are illegal and contain varied and unknown concentrations of the drug with unknown and varied effects. This is not to say that Baffert used any of the illegal compounded product but merely a reminder of the risks posed by the use of clenbuterol particularly at elevated doses.

The list of side effects of clenbuterol abuse over an extended duration such as would be typical in the barns of many a trainer, Baffert included, is long and perilous. Clenbuterol increases the size of heart muscle cells due to the increased production of collagen, an inelastic material that reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood and can potentially lead to cardiac arrest. See

Collagen also interferes with the electric signals sent through the heart muscle cells to keep it pumping regularly and may produce arrhythmias (irregular heart beat). This in turn increases the risk of strokes. Further studies in rodents also found that clenbuterol induced heart cell degeneration. Animal studies also indicate that clenbuterol adversely affects the hearts structural dimensions and may cause aortic enlargement after exercise, which increases the risk of aortic rupture and sudden death.

Furthermore, the use of clenbuterol may exacerbate any pre-existing heart condition or blood pressure problems. It is also thought that left-sided cardiac atrophy (wasting away of the left side of the heart) can occur very quickly (perhaps as little as four weeks when taken in high doses).” See

Horse tied in stall. Photo credit:
Photo credit:

It is incomprehensible why two drugs administered together — levothyroxine and clenbuterol — each with significant risk of cardiac failure when used inappropriately are not regulated apart from the drug threshold limits imposed on race day.

And this only takes into account two drugs of the countless others that are administered on a regular basis — legal or otherwise. And what other synergystic effects of race medications like lasix and phenylbutazone might exist? One could write a book on the nefarious drug culture of North American racing.

This is the quintessential case of denial from a system so shattered that repairing it seems unattainable.

“When your prime argument boils down to the seemingly rampant drugging of racehorses being OK because the drugs are legal therapeutic medications – without addressing whether a particular horse needs the medication – you are missing the essential point of the case made by those opposing the racing’ industry use of drugs. I doubt there is a sensible person who would oppose medications for an animal who needs it. But when the nation’s two leading trainers are administering drugs – albeit legal ones – without regard for the medical needs of a particular horse, we are no longer talking about therapeutic drugs, but rather drugs they hope will be performance-enhancing.”

See “Time for racing leaders to get their heads out of the sand”, by Tom Noonan at

Syringes full of Bute.  Just one example of drugs given to Coronado Heights the week prior to his breakdown and death. By NYT.
Syringes full of Bute. Just one example of drugs given to Coronado Heights the week prior to his breakdown and death. By NYT.

The two trainers of course are Baffert who fervently administered all of his horses’ levothyroxine while feigning ignorance about its mechanism of action and Todd Pletcher whose zeal to win ended in the death of 4YO Coronado Heights.

Diagnosed with early degenerative disease Coronado Heights should have been sidelined or retired but instead was administered ten different drugs over the period of a week, often in multiple doses to quell his unsoundness. The only reason for this — that his ethically challenged owner and trainer could not bear the thought of losing out on the prospect of winning.

See image of drugs Coronado Heights was given one week before he broke down and died.

“If they give the same drugs to all horses irrespective of an individual’s medical condition, what possible motivation would they have other than enhancing the horse’s performance?”


Reflecting back on the musings of Dwyre the absurdity and naivety of his statements should be an embarrassment to anyone with a modicum of intelligence.

“If Baffert is guilty of purposely doing something to harm animals, he needs to be ousted from the sport. But the only sanctioning body that can say that, the CHRB, already has said he is not. So it is time to move on.

Racing needs Baffert.”

In the CHRB we trust. Snicker.

And their golden boy Bob Baffert — the Lance Armstrong of horse racing.

Read Part 1

© Int’l Fund for Horses

25 thoughts on “Deadly to Horses: The Baffert Effect – Part 2”

  1. I must say I found this article to be fascinating and plan to re read it and further investigate the many claims and statements it makes. One thing I would like to refer to is re the administration of Levothyroxin. For one reason or another there seems to be a huge increase in non sweaters, (sweating is the horses way of cooling down, non sweaters breathe rapidly, possess an elevated body temp, often carry inordinately long coats and are great risk of heart attack if not treated) especially in southern climates. Administering Levothyroxin in conjunction with clenbuterol significantly help alleviate this disorder. T4 testing is both highly inaccurate (giving false normal readings) and expensive; when administering T4 powder, carefully observed clinical response is considered widely to be the most reliable measure of the success of the treatment. Also, if T4 powder is not kept in an air tight container it rapidly loses its efficacy. We all do what we can to “enhance” our horses performance: we feed them well; exercise them well; race them where they are competative; groom and care for them meticulously; administer therapeutic medications to treat conditions and combat the polluted environment that now surrounds us (ie air). The majority of owners and trainers are in the biz becasue of their love and admiration of the animal and his / her innate ability and desire to run and want healthy, happy horses. We try not to impede these abilities. I am not -nor are most of us- in any position to blame Baffert for the deaths of his horses. To win 7 races in a row with a staable of 4 horses is unusual, but it has been done all on the up and up; to not win a race for a period longer than the whole Gulfstream meet from a barn of blue bloods has also happened -ask Shug. So a cloud can hang over you inordinately, just as the sun can shine for an extended period


    1. I have never blamed BB 4 anything. I’m just saying what I THINK or ALLEGE he’s doing: doping or using electrical device. I’m not alone in my thinking. I also think that the CHRB is complacent in the least. I fully support the HORSE RACING ACT which is the USADA the most advanced anti-doping agency in the world who finally caught Lance Armstrong. Thanks everyone for sharing thoughts.


    2. The old timers used beer to treat non sweaters ,i believe that the rash of new ns are from the result of another legal drug or cocktail, as for one horse dying it is enough to search your diet etc after the second i would have switched every thing, my conscience would not have let me remain status quo let alone keep ordering any sort of similar drugs or vitamins.while i hear what you are saying the time to look the other way is gone and so are the Seven horses Sent from my Kyocera Hydro


  2. Truly Wish Horse Racing Was The Way It Used To Be! Looking Back, Over The years, I still Have Respect For The Owners, Trainers, and Jockeys Who had The Best Intrest In Their Hearts. Too Bad a Few Hollywood Trainers and Their Washed Out Finished Starlets Still Have A Voice In The Precious Sport Of Kings, Horseracing! They Will Eventually Burn Thenselves, and Hopefully Horseracing will Come Back As It Was Intended To Be, NATURAL,May The Best Horse Win. Not By Drugs, Not By Who You Are Socially, Not By Who You Know, But By Conditioning a Horse Who has Natural Talent, and is Above the Rest, The Winner, Yes, The Winner because he is the Best!


    1. Icertainly did not mean that a person should elimate and collect insurance, It just is a well known fact that some people do this, I was mearly stating a fack of the truth of the matter, when i was making this comment about some people and their evil ways!


  3. The entire CHRB relationship with trainers is incestuous, several on the CHRB have horses in training with trainers who come b4 the board with some regularity with violations and issues, K Brackpool, head of the CHRB has several horses in training with Carla Gaines, she had had several positive tests that never have an investigation “completed” nor does Baffert, noe DID Frankel, or several others. I don’t expect those on the CHRB to not own horses, it actually is a good thing that they do, however they then can’t claim to be 100% objective. The entire situation would/should be illegal if it were something that our politicians in Calif. truly cared about


    1. Bo Derick? What the hell does she really know about racehorses, other than riding a broke horse in the ocean half naked?


  4. I just read about a new drug or “treatment” they have banned at an east coast series of track (mid atlantic) that causes hmmm, low thyroid function.


  5. Drug free racing is the only way, i have written a book on how to, please share it with any one looking for another way. detail diets , exercises and treatments etc. fb page under the same name,, Drug Free Racing in America. there are other options, it is up to the owners to change. if this would have been a homicide investigation, with seven people had been killed would the outcome be different?


  6. Of course, I am thinking he is working his evil here in California as are other trainers. And I wonder what the jockeys are saying about the last race of these horses. What was happening, why have we not heard from them if the horse was artificially conditioned? It is obvious, the urine tests and filters at race level are NOT working to protect the horses or the betting public. This is fraud simple and straight forward and extraordinary animal abuse.


  7. Why has he not been charged with Penal Code section 596, each count a misdemeanor. Charging any person who, “without the consent of he owner, willfully administers poison to any animal with the intent … Shall be taken or swallowed by such animal.”. Then, there is second 597 which provides for felony charges for maliciously and intentionally maiming, torturing or wounding an animal. Or causing the animal to be overdriven, overworked, tormented, tortured. Both charges would be fulfilled with the consequence of the causing the horse to run faster than it naturally would and causing the physical damage such as bleeding, heart attacks, etc. Now, if upon this charge it is discovered the owners knew of the poisoning, the whole lot of them can be arrested and charged. This man and those POSs that support this ghoulish attack on the horses MUST be stopped. Does anyone know who enforces state law at these tracks and training stable locations?


  8. I’m going to call this “butcher” for what I allege he is: a doper.

    I’m going to call Bo Derek out for what she is: A reliable Baffert comrade, a washed up Hollywood starlet who has nothing more to her credit other than “braids,” and who keeps quiet when needed which is precisely why she was reelected to the INSIDER CHRB board.

    Don’t forget that Arthur is head of this all and does little or nothing when it comes to Baffert. His entire career has been a series of cover-ups with people in the right place from his main owner PEGRAM who is head of just about any influential racing board from TOC to Breeder’s Cup (don’t know if he has distanced himself from these boards), from unaccountability to funds, from being sued by Jerry Jamgotchian over issues etc etc.

    Baffert’s past MORHPHINE drug test that “DISAPPEARED” in the CHRB office or something similar to this!! From his owner Zayat who is currently being investigated for placing MILLIONS of dollars of bets to allegedly MANIPULATE the outcome of races in conjunction with Baffert. This guy has been literally getting away with MURDER while honest owner/trainers in the horse racing industry look on in awe hoping that one day the racing commissions will treat him like everybody else is treated. There is one thing consistent about the racing industry: rules & regulations are applied to people they don’t like (they throw the book at them) and totally ignore or bend the rules & regulations for people they like whether they are cheating dopers or not.

    There are many people who can’t understand why Baffert has not been ruled off. For anybody even thinking about investing in the business: DON”T DO IT. DON”T INVEST ONE DIME. You will be throwing your money in the toilet. Even if you have an outstanding talented horse like I did these people who control racing will ensure that you don’t get a fair shot.

    California racing has been under a cloud of corruption for many years now and it’s getting worse – not better. I would even venture to say that many of the stewards need to be released and they desperately need to bring in outside people to bring it back to a neutral zone. Trainers like Baffert, Pletcher, and other top 10% of trainers seem to use anything necessary to win and their rate of breakdowns are well above the average honest trainer.

    Just think about the implications if all of this if true: we have a bunch of sires sitting in Kentucky with HUGE stud fees that MAY HAVE won on drugs – not on talent. We are possibly breeding to a “drug” horse rather than a “talented” horse, which is why this is covered up because the bottom would fall out of the entire horse racing breeding industry.

    I do know one thing: The American racehorse is no longer superior. It is riddled with conformation and lameness issues and I bet it is due to whatever crap these trainers are putting into these horses to win.

    Don’t forget that many of these horses DIE shortly after they are sold to stud for MILLIONS overseas. Many die from mysterious colic issues. This is NOT NORMAL. Many have fertility issues (from Baffert) where the Japanese paid MILLIONS and could not impregnate. This is NOT NORMAL.

    There is one thing I do know for sure: the American racehorse is paying the price with their lives and this is unacceptable and inexcusable.


    1. You are really good on Your assumpion of Bobby baffert and Bo Derreck! Come on People The Lights are on Is anybody HOME??????


      1. I don’t give a crap what you think of me. I no longer care about the horse racing industry and what happens to it. I do care deeply about the racehorse which is precisely why I strongly support the Horse Racing Act where OUTSIDE people will be testing, handling, and reviewing the results of blood and urine. The USADA is a huge step in the right direction. IF allegations of mechanical/electrical devices (coming directly from Jockey Rooms) are true then no testing will be accurate.


        1. Gina, you are spot on regarding so many of your thoughts, however the premise that nothing can be done may be premature speculation :) The CHRB is obviously asleep at the wheel, they have gov’t. jobs and are NOT looking for work to stay busy, however there are other agencies that are willing to follow-up and prosecute as long as the evidence is brought to them, laid out in front of them and clearly explained to them with little pictures and all. If given that package they will ask questions and follow-up, without being too specific let’s just say that a specific agency ,may have gotten what was necessary. Take care and be safe


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