Category Archives: Premarin Horses

FDA-Approved Alternatives to Premarin Derivatives – are they safer ?


Contrary to popular belief, the FDA has yet to approve any generic as a substitute for Premarin and its daughter products (i.e. Prempro, Premphase, Duavee).

Accordingly no prescription drugs used to treat menopausal symptoms, other than the Premarin family, contain pregnant mare’s urine.

Image from PMU farm in Manitoba showing the collection bag used to collect the urine from pregnant mares used in the making of the Premarin family of drugs.
Image from PMU farm in Manitoba showing the collection bag used to collect the urine from pregnant mares used in the making of the Premarin family of drugs.

However much confusion arises when the subject of HRT is broached, particularly in terms of the safety aspect of FDA-approved versions that are not derived from pregnant mare’s urine.

The vast majority of FDA-approved HRT prescription drugs are synthetic bioidenticals — hormones identical on a molecular level to endogenous hormones that are synthesized in the lab from natural plant sources.

These are not to be confused with the compounded bioidenticals, none of which are approved by the FDA.

Premarin and its derivatives are also synthetics but, of course, sourced from an animal by-product.

Apart from Brisdelle, the only non-hormonal FDA-approved HRT, the rest fall into three categories of hormone combinations as follows:

• Estrogen combinations (e.g. Estrace, Cenestin, Enjuvia, Menest)
• Estrogen/Progestin combinations (e.g. Activella)
• Estrogen/Androgen combinations (e.g. Menogen, Covaryx)

The estrogen combinations are intended as substitutes for Premarin and Duavee while the estrogen/progestin versions are proposed alternatives to Prempro and Premphase.

Estrogen/androgen replacement therapy primarily represents mainstay therapy for young women who have undergone a hysterectomy. See

A good proportion of these drugs contain estradiol or esterified estrogens (non-equine) as the estrogen component (e.g. Estrace, Femtrace, Activella, Femhrt, Angeliq). However several have identical equine estrogens that are derived from plant-based sources versus pregnant mare’s urine.

That said, these drugs are not entirely identical nor are they exactly equivalent in constituents. Cenestin, Enjuvia, and Menest are three such HRTs included in this group.

Cenestin was originally developed as a generic for Premarin by Duramed/Barr but in 1997, the FDA refused to approve the abbreviated new drug applications from Duramed and Barr Laboratories for a generic version of Premarin.

The FDA’s rationale was quite straightforward. A synthetic generic version of Premarin could not be approved because the exact chemical composition of Premarin could not be fully identified. This has been a controversial topic for years, a topic The Horse Fund has visited in the past. See

In any case, all three of these drugs – Cenestin, Enjuvia, and Menest – contain similar estrogen components that are found in Premarin and its derivatives.

Premarin however is a complex mixture of numerous hormonal components, of which only some of the estrogenic components are found in the plant-based synthetics.

The table below compares the ingredients of Premarin, Cenestin and Enjuvia. I was unable to locate the same information for Menest.

However the pharmacology is similar to the others and contains a mixture of esterified estrogenic substances, principally estrone, that are of the type excreted by pregnant mares (e.g. sodium estrone sulfate, sodium equilin sulfate).

sodium estrone sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium equilin sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium 17 alpha-dihydroequilin sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium 17 beta-dihydroequilin sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium 17 alpha-betahydroequilenin sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium 17 beta-betahydroequilenin sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium 17 alpha-estradiol sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium equilenin sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium 17 beta-estradiol sulfate Yes Yes Yes
sodium D8,9-dehydroestrone sulfate Yes No Yes
5,7,9 (10) estratrien-3beta, 17 beta-diol Yes No No
17 alpha-dihydro-delta, 8,9-dehydroestrone Yes No No
17 beta-dihydro-delta, 8,9-dehydroestrone Yes No No
5,7,9 (10) estratrien-3betal-ol-17-one Yes No No
2-hydroxy-estrone Yes No No
2-methoxy-estrone Yes No No

In addition to the extra estrogens contained in Premarin, it also contains six progestin and four androgen equine hormones. See

Despite the fact that these alternatives contain several of the Premarin estrogenic components, a study comparing the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailabilities of key estrogen components of Premarin with those of synthetic plant-based equivalents concluded that these are not in fact bioequivalent to Premarin and therefore cannot be assumed to be therapeutically equivalent. See

But does this mean that these and other FDA-approved synthetics are safe?

Unfortunately these alternative synthetics carry with them the same or similar warnings associated with their use.

However it is often cited in scientific literature that estrogens derived from pregnant mares urine pose a greater risk due to the complexity and concentrations of the combined hormones together with the unmistakable fact that equine estrogens are foreign to humans.

Given that alternatives such as Cenestin and Enjuvia assimilate the equine equivalents in Premarin, despite the fact they are derived from plants, it is perplexing why anyone would elect to choose these to alleviate menopausal symptoms – purely from the aspect of being equine-related and extrinsic to the human endocrine system. More likely it is a case where they are unaware of what they contain.

And what about the rest that contain estradiol (e.g. Estrace) and other esterified non-equine estrogens, or those that contain progestins and androgens extracted from plant sources?

Here are some examples of the risks associated with these so-called “safer” alternatives compared to the Premarin derivatives. Source:

Estrogen-only HRT

Premarin (Conjugated Equine Estrogens – CEEs)
• Endometrial cancer, cardiovascular disorders, breast cancer and probable dementia (> 65 yrs).

Enjuvia (plant –derived equine estrogens)
• Endometrial cancer, cardiovascular disorders, breast cancer and probable dementia (> 65 yrs).

Estrace (estradiol – plant based)
• Endometrial cancer, cardiovascular disorders, breast cancer and probable dementia (> 65 yrs).

Estrogen –Progestin HRT

Prempro/Premphase (CEEs/progestin)
• Invasive breast cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and probable dementia (> 65 yrs).

Activella (estradiol/progesterone – plant based)
• Invasive breast cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and probable dementia (> 65 yrs).

And let’s not forget the newest addition to the Premarin family.

Duavee (CEES/bazedozifene(SERM)
• Endometrial cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and probable dementia (> 65 yrs).
• The SERM bazedoxifene is believed to inhibit the formation of breast cancer cells by binding to the estrogen receptor thus interfering with its activity.

Premstoppers Campaign. Warning, Premarin Contains Horse Urine.

The picture is clear.

In effect the FDA-approved hormone-containing alternatives carry with them the same risks and warnings associated with drugs derived from conjugate estrogen estrogens, whether that be estrogen alone or combinations. Albeit the risks may not be of the same significance as those associated with drugs manufactured from pregnant mare’s urine.

Nonetheless they still exist, and potentially more so for susceptible individuals.

Although the hormonal ingredients are similar or equivalent, they may or may not function identically for any single given woman. This applies to the Premarin derivatives as well.

And so, as much as it may seem that these hormones are safer than the Premarin family of drugs, there is no solid evidence to prove this.

It is important to note that some of these drugs have been approved by the FDA because data collected from trials has proven their effectiveness in relieving menopausal symptoms and reducing the risk of osteoporosis.

However there have been no long-term studies like the WHI performed to assess their safety profile.

In the absence of comparable data, the risks are generally assumed to be similar to CEEs and other forms of estrogens.

Moreover, regardless of the source and type of hormones, it is always recommended that estrogens, with or without progestins, should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment.

Brisdelle as an alternative?

Brisdelle approved.
Brisdelle becomes first non-hormonal replacement therapy drug for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in NA.

As mentioned there is only one FDA-approved non-hormonal HRT. In early June of 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the drug “Brisdelle” (paroxetine – Paxil) manufactured by Noven Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of hot flashes due to menopause.
Brisdelle contains the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine mesylate, making it unique from all other FDA-approved treatment for hot flashes which contain the hormones estrogen or progestin. 

Brisdelle poses none of the risks associated with estrogens or estrogen combination therapies.

However it is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) (antidepressant), which has been shown to increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in pediatric and young adult patients when used to treat major depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders. See

Whether this risk applies to menopausal women is unclear.

As with any drugs and medications there are inherent risks, the nature of which can range from mild to life-threatening. Always consult your doctor to help decide what is best for your particular situation.

Please visit our Alternatives to Premarin page to learn more about options other than drugs containing conjugated equine estrogens. See

Comparing the cost of FDA-approved HRT

Pharmaceutical Industry: A prescription for money.
Pharmaceutical Industry: A prescription for making huge profits.

As an aside and for interest’s sake here is a list of some of the more common HRTs available and the costs associated with them. The list is by no means comprehensive and includes the tablet form of the drug only.

This information was taken from and pertains only to the U.S. Prices are per tablet and converted to monthly costs based on a 30-day interval.

For consistency, all of the costs were taken from Walgreen’s with the discount coupons applied. Obviously prices will vary depending on store, geographic location, available coupons, etc. and are only intended to provide a relative comparison using the same base source.

Prempro / Premphase CEEs / Progestin No Expired $5.77 $173
Brisdelle SSRI (paroxetine) No Apr 2029 $5.74 $172
Duavee CEEs / SERM (bazedoxifene) No Oct 2016 $4.77 $143
Premarin CEEs No Expired $4.33 $130
Angeliq Estrogen / Progestin No Oct 2017 $4.31 $129
Cenestin CEEs — plant based No Expired $3.97 $119
Prefest Estradiol / Progestin No March 2020 $3.37 $112
Enjuvia CEEs — plant based No Feb 2021 $2.75 $83
Femtrace Estradiol acetate No Dec 2021 $2.68 $80
Activella Estradiol / Progestin Yes Expired $2.06 $78
Menest CEEs — plant based No Expired $1.77 $53
Femhrt Estrogen / Progestin Yes Expired $1.32 $40
Ogen Estrogen (estrone) Yes Expired $0.28 $8
Estrace Estradiol Yes Expired $0.13 $4

Clearly, Pfizer is laughing all the way to the bank at the expense of women and horses alike.


© The Horse Fund

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Learn more the horses and drugs made from their urine at Premstoppers »

Help get horse pee ads off the air and out of magazines

Duavee ad, August 2014, Better Homes and Gardens.
August 2014, Better Homes and Gardens.


Menopause is not a disease. It is a natural change in hormones that takes place when women begin to move past their childbearing years.

Hot flashes may occur and make you uncomfortable during that time. Last I heard hot flashes caused by menopause most likely will never kill you.

Last class action lawsuit I saw demonstrates that drugs made with horse pee such as Premarin, Prempro, Premphase and its latest incarnation — DUAVEE — can cause cancer. The World Health Organization has been saying this for a long while. Drugs made with conjugated equine estrogens are known carcinogens.

Premarin Cream ads peddle the idea to menopausal woman that they are too dried up to enjoy sex. Really?

If women are old enough to have symptoms of menopause, surely they are old enough to know what lube is and how to use it.


Let us know when and where you see advertisements for Premarin, Premarin Cream, Duavee (or Duavive in the EU) by completing the form below.

If aired on television, we must know which show you were watching please and the time. When we contact television stations their staff do not want to look it up. Let’s make it as easy for them as we can so they will co-operate.

Here’s the form. Fill in the revelant bits. Click submit when you are ready. Your information will be sent directly to our inbox. Thank you!



What are we doing with this information? We are getting these ads off the air and out of magazines by alerting advertisers to the nature of these products.

Oprah (I thought she had retired or something) ignores all requests and still advertising Premarin Cream. I guess she doesn’t care. And she’s a horse owner too.


Our Facebook page is active again. See Please feel free to post this information there.


— Learn more about the horses and foals who abused by this obnoxious industry at Premstoppers »

Court awards over $13M in drug lawsuit launched by Sechelt woman

Cross-posted from The Coast Reporter »

Image from PMU farm in Manitoba showing the collection bag used to collect the urine from pregnant mares used in the making of the Premarin family of drugs.
Image from PMU farm in Manitoba showing the collection bag used to collect the urine from pregnant mares used in the making of the Premarin family of drugs.

CANADA — The class action lawsuit launched by a Sechelt woman against Wyeth Canada Inc. for selling hormone replacement therapy drugs linked to breast cancer is now settled and a $13.65 million payment has been awarded by the B.C. Supreme Court.

A large portion of that settlement, about 43 per cent, will go to legal counsel for the plaintiffs in the class action suit. The approximately 1,100 plaintiffs themselves will split what’s remaining based on medical costs incurred to date and the ability to prove they took the hormone replacement drug Premarin or Premplus between 1977 and 2003.

Sechelt resident Dianna Stanway, who launched the class action suit, said this week that while the payout may be minimal in the end for the many women involved, she was “satisfied with whatever they can get us.”

“As long as everybody knows it can cause cancer. That was the main object of the court case, because people didn’t know it did at the time but now they do,” Stanway said.

“I’m quite pleased with the outcome of it all.”

Stanway started the class action suit in 2004 after taking the drug Premarin and subsequently being diagnosed with ductal and lobular breast cancer. Continue reading »

What this article does not mention is that Premarin and its sister drugs are made with the urine of pregnant mares.

The pharmaceutical industry now commonly refers to the estrogen component in Premarin drugs (including its latest Duavee) as conjugated estrogens conveniently omitting equine which indicates the true identity and alarming nature of these products. There is a hint in the name of the drug itself — pregnant mare’s urine.

The $13M payout is chump change to pharma giant Pfizer, who acquired Wyeth in a merger in 2009 and continues to make billions of dollars from the sales of these types of products.

And all those commercials you see for Premarin cream? Yessiree. Same drug. Same company. Same conjugated equine estrogens. Same horror for the horses.


Learn more about the drugs, the women and the horses »


Please note that the image of the PMU farm on this page was not filed with the cited report.

Malibu the Premarin Mare

Guest Post By

Malibu the rescued Premarin Mare, as she looks now. Source Photo.
Malibu the rescued Premarin Mare, as she looks now. Source Photo.

The name Malibu implies a lovely place that is warm and sunny, but Malibu the mare is not from such a place. She is from a Premarin horse farm that houses horses inside on cold concrete floors.

They are made to stand 24 hours a day for 6 months out of every pregnancy. The mares are kept pregnant because their urine is estrogen-rich during the last 6 months of their pregnancy. Thirst is a constant feeling for them as they are given only small amounts of water so that their urine will be concentrated. Attached to their hind end is a huge cumbersome bag that collects their urine so they cannot move forward, backward, or even lie down. They are tethered to their small miserable stalls so their collection bags do not leak.

Malibu had 9 foals in 9 years that were all sent to slaughter. Horse meat is considered a delicacy in some countries. She had her 10th foal at Watsonville, California where she was saved by Lynn Hummer who is the founder of the rescue.

Lynn has had many a foal born at her rescue. The volunteers who assist at the rescue have many jobs and spend a great deal of their time to keep the horses fed, watered, exercised and on their way to being rehabilitated physically and emotionally.

Slowly Malibu has gained weight, as when she arrived all her ribs were prominent. Lynn thought she might wither away because she had seemed to lose her will to live. Sometimes she stood with tears in her eyes. Some of the Premarin mares die standing on the line. They have been known to just keel over due to the stress placed on their bodies.

I walk to the pasture gate to say hello to all the horses. Malibu hangs back and just eyes me warily. She stands alone as the others come to greet me. She bares her teeth when the other mares come close to her.

I do bodywork on horses and can see that it will be a long time before she ever allows me to touch her—if she ever does. Lynn will never stop trying to make a connection with her. She gives new meaning to the word “rescue” and cares deeply about each and every horse she takes in.

It has been a year, and now Malibu allows herself to be touched—but only for a brief moment. Still, this is a huge step!

When touch from a human hand becomes too overwhelming for her Malibu moves away. She then watches from afar seeming to try to process the fact that the humans mean her no harm in her present circumstances.

Lynn is patient—undemanding of Malibu and unwaveringly hopeful that Malibu will continue on her long path to healing.

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On behalf of horses like Malibu, please be sure to sign our Petition asking Pfizer to stop making drugs with horse urine. And pass this story along. Thank you.